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- Radio-frequency identification - Wikipedia
- Radio-frequency identification
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In general, SAW technology has advantages over possible competing technologies: passive, wireless, radiation hard, operation from cryogenic to furnace temperature ranges, small, rugged, variable frequency and bandwidth operation, encoding and commercially available. SAW sensor embodiments can provide onboard device sensor integration, or can provide integration with an external sensor that uses the SAW device for encoding the sensor information and transmission to the receiver. This paper will discuss the key parameters for OFC device design, which include reflector and transducer design, coding diversity approaches, and insertion loss considerations.
Rush error, lap count errors and accidents at start time are avoided since anyone can start and finish any time without being in a batch mode. Short range compact chips are twist tied to the shoe or velcro strapped the ankle. These need to be about mm from the mat and so give very good temporal resolution. Alternatively, a chip plus a very large a mm square antenna can be incorporated into the bib number worn on the athlete's chest at about 1.
Riders have a transponder on their person, normally on their arm. When they complete a lap they swipe or touch the receiver which is connected to a computer and log their lap time. A number of ski resorts have adopted RFID tags to provide skiers hands-free access to ski lifts. Skiers do not have to take their passes out of their pockets.
This nearly contacts the sensor unit on the left of the turnstile as the skier pushes through to the lift. These systems were based on high frequency HF at The bulk of ski areas in Europe, from Verbier to Chamonix use these systems. Currently cameras stay focused on the quarterback , however, numerous plays are happening simultaneously on the field. The RFID chip will provide new insight into these simultaneous plays. The RFID chip will make individual player information accessible to the public. The data will be available via the NFL app. They may never completely replace barcodes, due in part to their higher cost and the advantage of multiple data sources on the same object.
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Also, unlike RFID labels, barcodes can be generated and distributed electronically, e. An example is airline boarding passes. The new EPC , along with several other schemes, is widely available at reasonable cost. The storage of data associated with tracking items will require many terabytes.
Filtering and categorizing RFID data is needed to create useful information. The unique identity is a mandatory requirement for RFID tags, despite special choice of the numbering scheme.
RFID tag data capacity is large enough that each individual tag will have a unique code, while current bar codes are limited to a single type code for a particular product. The uniqueness of RFID tags means that a product may be tracked as it moves from location to location, finally ending up in the consumer's hands. This may help to combat theft and other forms of product loss. The tracing of products is an important feature that gets well supported with RFID tags containing a unique identity of the tag and also the serial number of the object. This may help companies cope with quality deficiencies and resulting recall campaigns, but also contributes to concern about tracking and profiling of consumers after the sale.
RFID has recently developed in the waste management industry. RFID tags are installed on waste collection carts, linking carts to the owner's account for easy billing and service verification. Active RFID tags also have the potential to function as low-cost remote sensors that broadcast telemetry back to a base station. Applications of tagometry data could include sensing of road conditions by implanted beacons , weather reports, and noise level monitoring. Passive RFID tags can also report sensor data. There are also several specific industries that have set guidelines. In principle, every country can set its own rules for frequency allocation for RFID tags, and not all radio bands are available in all countries.
The return signal of the tag may still cause interference for other radio users. Readers are required to monitor a channel before transmitting "Listen Before Talk" ; this requirement has led to some restrictions on performance, the resolution of which is a subject of current research. In some countries, a site license is needed, which needs to be applied for at the local authorities, and can be revoked.
Radio-frequency identification - Wikipedia
According to an overview assembled by GS1 , as of 31 October , regulations are in place in 78 countries representing ca. Standards that have been made regarding RFID include:.
In order to ensure global interoperability of products, several organizations have set up additional standards for RFID testing. These standards include conformance, performance and interoperability tests. Two tag air interfaces the protocol for exchanging information between a tag and a reader were defined but not ratified by EPCglobal prior to These protocols, commonly known as Class 0 and Class 1, saw significant commercial implementation in — In , the Hardware Action Group created a new protocol, the Class 1 Generation 2 interface, which addressed a number of problems that had been experienced with Class 0 and Class 1 tags.
This was approved after a contention from Intermec that the standard may infringe a number of their RFID-related patents. It was decided that the standard itself does not infringe their patents, making the standard royalty free. Not every successful reading of a tag an observation is useful for business purposes. A large amount of data may be generated that is not useful for managing inventory or other applications.
For example, a customer moving a product from one shelf to another, or a pallet load of articles that passes several readers while being moved in a warehouse, are events that do not produce data that are meaningful to an inventory control system.
Event filtering is required to reduce this data inflow to a meaningful depiction of moving goods passing a threshold. Various concepts [ example needed ] have been designed, mainly offered as middleware performing the filtering from noisy and redundant raw data to significant processed data. Furthermore, no emerging standard has yet become as universal as the barcode. This is mostly as result of the fact that RFID tags can be read, and legitimate transactions with readers can be eavesdropped, from non-trivial distances.
A second method of prevention is by using cryptography. Rolling codes and challenge-response authentication CRA are commonly used to foil monitor-repetition of the messages between the tag and reader; as any messages that have been recorded would prove to be unsuccessful on repeat transmission. Rolling codes rely upon the tag's id being changed after each interrogation, while CRA uses software to ask for a cryptographically coded response from the tag.
The protocols used during CRA can be symmetric , or may use public key cryptography. Unauthorized reading of RFID tags presents a risk to privacy. Unauthorized readers can potentially use RFID information to identify or track packages, consumers, carriers, or the contents of a package. Microchip—induced tumors have been noted during animal trials. Ars Technica reported in March an RFID buffer overflow bug that could infect airport terminal RFID databases for baggage, and also passport databases to obtain confidential information on the passport holder.
In an effort to standardize and make it easier to process passports, several countries have implemented RFID in passports, despite security and privacy issues.
Where a criminal used to need to secretly open and then reseal the envelope, now it can be done without detection, adding some degree of insecurity to the passport system. General Services Administration GSA issued a set of test procedures for evaluating electromagnetically opaque sleeves. There are contradictory opinions as to whether aluminum can prevent reading of RFID chips.
Some people claim that aluminum shielding, essentially creating a Faraday cage , does work. Shielding effectiveness depends on the frequency being used. Low-frequency LowFID tags, like those used in implantable devices for humans and pets, are relatively resistant to shielding, although thick metal foil will prevent most reads. High frequency HighFID tags The use of RFID has engendered considerable controversy and even product boycotts by consumer privacy advocates. Consumer privacy experts Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre are two prominent critics of the "spychip" technology. The two main privacy concerns regarding RFID are:.
Most concerns revolve around the fact that RFID tags affixed to products remain functional even after the products have been purchased and taken home and thus can be used for surveillance and other purposes unrelated to their supply chain inventory functions. They discussed satellite tracking of a passive RFID tag, which is surprising since the maximum range is under m.
The concerns raised by the above may be addressed in part by use of the Clipped Tag. After the point of sale, a consumer may tear off a portion of the tag. The modification of the tag may be confirmed visually. The tag may still be used later for returns, recalls, or recycling. However, read range is a function of both the reader and the tag itself. Improvements in technology may increase read ranges for tags. Tags may be read at longer ranges than they are designed for by increasing reader power.
The limit on read distance then becomes the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal reflected from the tag back to the reader. Researchers at two security conferences have demonstrated that passive Ultra-HighFID tags normally read at ranges of up to 30 feet, can be read at ranges of 50 to 69 feet using suitable equipment. It was uncovered by accident that METRO "Payback" customer loyalty cards contained RFID tags with customer IDs, a fact that was disclosed neither to customers receiving the cards, nor to this group of privacy advocates.
In — the Federal Trade Commission staff conducted a workshop and review of RFID privacy concerns and issued a report recommending best practices. This supports the claim that with the information captured, it would be relatively simple to make counterfeit passports. Where your every purchase is monitored and recorded in a database and your every belonging is numbered. Where someone many states away or perhaps in another country has a record of everything you have ever bought. What's more, they can be tracked and monitored remotely". According to an RSA laboratories FAQ, RFID tags can be destroyed by a standard microwave oven;  however some types of RFID tags, particularly those constructed to radiate using large metallic antennas in particular RF tags and EPC tags , may catch fire if subjected to this process for too long as would any metallic item inside a microwave oven.
This simple method cannot safely be used to deactivate RFID features in electronic devices, or those implanted in living tissue, because of the risk of damage to the "host". However the time required is extremely short a second or two of radiation and the method works in many other non-electronic and inanimate items, long before heat or fire become of concern.
yuzu-washoku.com/components/2020-09-16/3135.php Some RFID tags implement a "kill command" mechanism to permanently and irreversibly disable them.